Kitchen Hood Extinguishing Systems


Fire in a kitchen hood is a serious fire that threatens the public buildings as well as its surrounding area, and which cannot be extinguished with water.
It has become inevitable to make these systems mandatory, considering the experience so far and the lessons taken. With the Fire Directive of 2009, these systems have become mandatory in public buildings and restaurants with more than 100 seats.


The liquid extinguishes used in the system is comprised of a mixture of potassium-based liquid and water, which has been specifically developed for hot oil fires. With this special mixture, the discharge line pipes are made in black or of galvanized pipe. Use of stainless steel pipes has become common today, considering its compatibility with kitchen equipment and long life.
The system is a modular system that has undergone preliminary engineering studies. Kitchen hood extinguishing systems are designed with consideration of the UL300 standard and are installed in compliance with the design and assembly documents of the manufacturer.

Numbers of nozzles and the nozzle flow figures are calculated beforehand according to the documents of the manufacturer and the system capacity is determined accordingly. According to the system capacity, the pipe diameters are selected from the documents of the manufacturer. System performance and flow tests are conducted by YCS TEKNİK and by authorized companies.

Areas to be protected; 
1. Kitchen hood outlets
2. Inside the plenum (filters)
3. Cooking equipment under the hood (deep fryer, burner, grill, etc.)

Kitchen hood fires often start in invisible areas and in areas with oil residue, and the fire is already out of control by the time the staff notices it. Therefore, nozzles are required at the hood outlets and inside the plenum.

Losses due to kitchen fire; 
1. The entire building may be damaged
2. It causes loss of labor
3. It leads to financial losses It results in loss of prestige


It leads to problems due to legal requirements Oil fires have a high potential of spreading in the immediate environment. Oil fires are difficult to extinguish and have a high risk of reignition! Attempts to put it out with just water makes the fire spread even further and makes it more difficult to extinguish.


Main differences of oil fires from other fires; 
• It is self-ignited, and catches fire rapidly
• With the ignition, heat goes up quickly
• Flammable gases that are revealed during the fire help the fire to spread. 1 1,5 2 5 6 7,5 10 11 12,5 43,5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Other Heat Sources Natural Causes Open Flame Burner Cigarettes, etc. Application Devices Heating Equipment Other Equipment Advertently Electrical Cooking Units in (%)


Causes of Fire How to extinguish oil fires? 


• Cutting the contact of the fire with oxygen…
• Potential risks that may cause fire;
• Oil residue on grills
• Oil on open burners and frying pans
• Overheated deep fryers and wok pans
• Rotary kilns, salamander and open grills

Specifications of automatic hood extinguishing systems;

• It should be able to extinguish oil fires
• It should respond quickly to fire
• It should ensure protection 24/7, day and night
• It should have protection inside the hood
• It should be able to automatically interrupt power supply to cooking equipment
• It should be able to protect the most challenging areas

• It should be independent from the other systems
• It should fulfill the requirements of the local authority and insurance (Approvals & Standards)
• It should protect the kitchen staff against accidents,
• It should protect the surrounding kitchens and the building
• It should be easy to clean
• It should be environment-friendly

• It should ensure minimum impact on the operations,
• It should be in harmony with the kitchen decoration and hygiene

With the single or multiple dry contacts from the system control mechanism, the power supply to relevant equipment can be interrupted, the gas valve can be turned off, and discharge information can be sent to the central control system.


ARTICLE 57- (1)  Kitchen and catering factories inside high-rise buildings, excluding residences, and kitchens that offer services to more than 100 people at once should have an automatic extinguishing system in the kitchen hood, and a gas detection, gas interruption and warning system depending on the specifications of the gas used in burners.
The restaurants which do not have a Hood Extinguishing System cannot obtain an operating license from the fire department/municipality.
These systems are automatic, and can also be operated manually.
The system consists of heat-sensitive detection installation, a cylinder containing special liquid extinguisher, and a discharge line.

Relevant Standards ;

NFPA 17 Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 17A Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking